Sampey writes on Amos:
“Jonah probably prophesied about 800 B.C., just prior to Jeroboam’s accession to the throne of Israel (or Ephraim). When Jeroboam’s prosperous reign had brought in luxury with its attendant evils, Jehovah sent of Israel a missionary from Tekoa, in Judah. It was only twenty-two miles from Tekoa, the home of Amos, to Bethel, where he opened his ministry to Israel. Amos could eat breakfast at home and take supper in Bethel. The ministry of Amos probably came in the later part of the reign of Jeroboam II. (about 760 B.C.). He was a herdsman and a dresser of sycamore trees. He was not educated for a prophet; but Jehovah called him from his humble employment to bear His message to the Northern Kingdom. He was a keen observer of men and things, burning with righteous indignation at the wrongs heaped upon the poor and helpless. He was a fearless prophet of God, who would not be turned aside by threats of violence.” Hester writes on Amos:
“Amos, the uncompromising prophet of righteousness, lived in the reign of Jeroboam II of Israel, about 760 B.C. The student will recall that this was an era of great national expansion accompanied by almost unparalleled national prosperity. Assyria (Nineveh) which had been spared by the preaching of Jonah was now rising up, preparing to reach toward the Mediterranean in a program of conquest. In less than forty years after Amos began his work the northern tribes (Israel) were captured and taken into exile in Assyria. Despite this threat the people of Israel, enjoying their material prosperity, allowed themselves to descend into a state of moral corruption and spiritual decay that threatened their very existence. Amos came forth with his message to save them from disaster. In his condemnation of their wickedness he mentions almost every sin conceivable–immorality, drunkenness, theft, greed, injustice, disregard of the poor, defrauding the helpless, neglect of spiritual duties and forsaking of Jehovah, their God. Outwardly the people were religious, taking pains to attend the proper ceremonies, observe the technical regulations and make required offerings. Inwardly, however, they were selfish, cruel, wicked and worldly-minded.”
Peter and James on Amos
Old Testament Prophet (Acts 1:16-21)
4. Amos 9:11,12 (Acts 15:16,17) So that while Peter give 3. Joel 2:28-32 is the only quote on Joel, James in Acts 15:16,17 does the same thing for Amos.
1. Amos 9:11,12 and Acts 15:16,17. “Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things.” (Acts 15:14-17) And this is a good place to check to see if we think indeed that Amos 5:15 and the book of Amos came before Joel. “Hate the evil, and love the good, and establish judgment in the gate; it may be that the LORD God of hosts will be gracious unto the remnant of Joseph. Therefore, the LORD, the God of hosts, the Lord, saith thus; Wailing shall be in all the streets….Woe unto you that desire the day of the LORD…” (Amos 5:15,16,18)
The Gospel on Amos
6. Amos. Insert from Acts Amos 5:25-27 Acts (Stephen) 7:42
9:11,12 Acts 15:15-17
So that besides the one from James at which we have already looked, we have an additional one from Stephen in Acts 7:42. 1. Amos 5:25-27 and Acts 7:42. “Then God turned, and gave them up to worship the host of heaven; as it is written in the book of the prophets, O ye house of Israel, have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices by the space of forty years in the wilderness? Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them: and I will carry you away beyond Babylon.” (Acts 7:42,43)
Since Amos fills the gap of the previous history and spiritual history of the children of Israel, starting with the 40 years after rescue from Egyptian bondage; and moving forward to the bondage that awaits them in Babylonian Captivity, I would prefer based on the internal evidence of the Bible itself to put Amos ahead of Joel.
Established Explained Reinforced Appendix (Old Test.) (Matthew) Proclaimed
(Heb/Rom) (Luke) (Mark) Jonah 3:1-4 11:29
While James and Peter, as far as a quote, do not speak on Jonah, Luke does on Jonah 3:1-4.
1. Jonah 3:1-4 and Luke 11:29. “And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, this is an evil generation: they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet. For as Jonas was a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation….The men of Nineveh shall rise up in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonas, and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here.” (Luke 11:29-32) My preference in the ordering of these first three Minor Prophets, based on both internal evidence and the message would be:
1. Jonah. 2. Amos. 3. Joel.
Sampey writes on Obadiah:
“It is possible that the prophecy of Obadiah, which appears as fourth in the
roll of the Minor Prophets, was delivered about the close of Jehoram’s reign (845 B.C.). Many good scholars put it shortly after 587 B.C. On the whole, we prefer the early date, though fully aware of the strong case that can be made out for a date shortly after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. Obadiah’s message is directed against Edom. The proud Edomites need not fancy that they are unassailable in their lofty vastness. Jehovah will bring them down because of their violence and cruelty to Israel. They took part with Judah’s enemies and helped on the calamity. Retribution shall certainly overtake them. Jehovah’s people shall again enjoy prosperity in their own land. The most significant expression in the book is the closing affirmation, “and the kingdom shall be Jehovah’s” (Obadiah 1 to 21).”
Hester writes on Obadiah:
“Obadiah with its one chapter of twenty-one verses, is the shortest book
in the Old Testament. The name means `servant of Jehovah’. We know nothing of the author except some general impressions gained from his book. He was probably a native of Judah. He lived at the same time as Ezekiel and Jeremiah, hence was an eyewitness of the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. He was deeply offended by the lack of sympathy and even the delight which the Edomites exhibited in the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. The Edomites, living south of Judah, were the descendants of Esau, hence relatives of the Jews, for many centuries they had been neighbors, though the relations between Edom and Judah had been strained, and even bitter, much of the time. These `relatives’ should have shown sympathy in the destruction of the kingdom of Judah; instead, they rejoiced in the ill fate of their neighbors. The book of Obadiah is an oration directed against Edom for this unbrotherly behavior. Edom was destroyed in 582 B.C. The book of Obadiah apparently was written between the destruction of Jerusalem and Edom, hence the date is usually given as about 585 B.C.”
The Gospel (New Bible) on Obadiah
While Peter and James do not quote from Obadiah, we do have two references accumulated in the New Bible Appendix which have been added to the Gospel Appendix.
3. Obadiah. Insert for Obadiah
Obadiah 15 Revelation 16:14 II Corinthians 15:28
1. Obadiah 15 and Revelation 16:14. “For the day of the LORD is near upon all the heathen: as thou hast done, it shall be done unto thee; thy reward shall return upon thine own head.” (Obadiah 15)
Once again, the double nature of Prophecy as the Day of the LORD has the double meaning of immediate judgment on Edom, and the further meaning of the Day of the LORD after the end of the Last Days. “For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.” (Revelation 16:14)
2. Obadiah 21 and I Corinthians 15:28. “And saviours shall come up on mount Zion to judge the mount of Esau; and the kingdom shall be the LORD’S.” (Obadiah 21)
“And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.” (I Cor. 15:28)
NOTE: One of the most important and informative quotes in all the Bible for a proper understanding of both the Trinity and the Kingdom: after Jesus makes captive all in heaven and earth under His feet, then the Son will deliver the complete Kingdom to His Father in order that God the Father may be all in all. It drives the Scofield mites crazy because they cannot fit this into the philosophy and theology of their second false kingdom on earth of a speculated 1000 years.
I would prefer the later date for the writing of Obadiah, simply because it seems from the message of Malachi that the destruction of Edom has more recently occurred.
“And I hated Esau and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness.” (Malachi 1:3)
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