NOTE: Numbers following (9-9, 9-10, and 9-11 are from the original outline of the Bible, and covering the minor Prophets of Hosea, Micah, and Nahum.
9-9: The Prophet Hosea.
While Peter and James do not quote from Hosea, you do find Hosea in the Gospel Applications of Table 9.
7. Hosea. Proclaimed Established Explained Reinforced Appendix
(Old Test.) (Matthew) (Heb/Rom) (Luke) (Mark)
Hosea 11:1 2:15
- Hosea 11:1 and Matthew 2:15.
“When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt.” (Hosea 11:1)
“And was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.” (Matthew 2:15)
Here again you see the more than double nature of prophecy in that: (1) The children of Israel were brought out of Egyptian bondage under Moses, the children being the son; (2) Jesus, the precise Son of God, came back out of Egypt after the persecution under Herod was over; and (3) In the book of Revelation you will find a third as Israel of the New Remnant of Jews and Gentiles are the seed of the woman.
Sampey writes on Hosea:
“Hosea began to prophesy toward the close of the reign of Jeroboam II. The Indian summer of Israel’s history was fast passing over into the winter of their discontent. After Jeroboam came a period of anarchy and confusion. Zechariah was slain after a reign of sic months; Shallum after only one month. A dozen years later Pekahiah was assassinated by Pekah, who afterwards met the same fate at the hand of Hoshea, the last king of Ephraim. All these were ungodly rulers, the morals of the nation sinking to the lowest ebb. The language of the prophet is influenced by the confusion about him in the nation and in his own home. He writes in broken sentences, because his heart is broken. Sin is everywhere. `There is nought but swearing and breaking faith, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery; they break out, and blood toucheth blood’ (Hosea 4:2).”
Hester writes of Hosea:
“This prophet may be considered a contemporary of Amos, though he probably did his work some ten years later. He lived under Jeroboam II of Israel and under Uzziah, Jothan, Ahaz and Hezekiah of Judah. Conditions in general were the same as in the time of Amos. The international situation was growing steadily more threatening with the Assyrian doom coming nearer. In Israel rapid changes came after the death of Jeroboam II. Within twenty years six kings had occupied the throne at Samaria. Internally conditions were no better. Apparently, the faithful ministry of Amos had not produced any permanent reformation. The same sings blighted the land and Israel seemed unaware of danger an unresponsive to the gracious mercies and proffered guidance of Jehovah their God.”
James does quote from the Prophet Micah. James gives us the single reference from Peter and James with James 2:13 on Micah 7:18.
1. Micah 7:18 and James 2:13.
“Who is a God like unto thee, that pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the transgression of the remnant of his heritage? he retaineth not his anger forever, because he delighteth in mercy.” (Micah 7:18)
“For he shall have judgment without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy; and mercy rejoiceth against judgment.” (James 2:13)
So that with the previous from James, we have three more references for Micah.
Micah 5:2,7,8 and Matthew 2:5,6.
“…he demanded (Herod) where Christ should be born. And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea; for thus it is written by the prophet, and thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.” (Matthew 2:4-6)
Micah 6:15 and John 4:37.
“And herein is that saying true, One soweth, and another reapeth.” (John 4:37)
And already in Micah you note a shift in emphasis from the judgment of the previous Prophets to one of hope in the coming of the Prophet Messiah, the Christ, a shift that among other things notes that the Prophet Isaiah has already delivered His message.
Micah 7:6 and Mark 13:12.
“And the gospel must first be published among all nations….Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against their parents and shall cause them to be put to death. And ye shall be hated of all men for my names sake: but he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.” (Mark 13:10,12,13)
And a descent preliminary outline of Micah could be made of these four references: (1) The New Governor, Christ, over Israel to comes; (2) Disciples after Jesus reap the rewards of sowing from this Christ and the Prophets; (3) As the Gospel continues to be preached to every nation, the time near the Last day in the Last Days will bring increased persecution; and (4) God is a God of mercy and Judgment.
Sampey on Micah:
“Micah was contemporary with Isaiah and is worthy to be associated with that wonderful genius. He is vigorous and fearless in denunciation of wrong, and clear and forceful in his doctrinal teaching, and tender and persuasive in appeal. He reveals the source of his fearless denunciation of wrong, when he says: `But as for me, I am full of power by the Spirit of Jehovah, and of judgment, and of might, to declare unto Jacob his transgression, and to Israel his sin’ (Micah 3:8). He arraigns the political and religious rulers as the leaders in sin: `Hear this, I pray you, ye heads of the house of Jacob, and rulers of the house of Israel, that abhor justice, and pervert all equity. They build up Zion with blood, and Jerusalem with iniquity. The heads thereof judge for reward, and the priests thereof teach for hire, and the prophets thereof divine for money: yet they lean upon Jehovah, and say, Is not Jehovah in the midst of us? no evil shall come upon us.’ Was there ever a more pungent indictment of a nation’s ruling classes? What must be the outcome of such conduct? ‘Therefore, shall Zion for you sake be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest’ (Micah 3:9- 12).”
Hester writes on Micah:
“Micah (who is like Jehovah) was a contemporary of Isaiah and, therefore, lived under the same conditions and faced the same problems. Isaiah did his work in the city while Micah seems to have worked with people out in the country. He came from the little village of Mersheth on the borders between Judah and Philistia, a distance of about twenty-five miles southwest of Jerusalem. His home was on the main highway between Jerusalem and Egypt and because of this the young prophet had opportunities to learn of big events taking place in his time. We know almost nothing of his family or of his home life. His work indicates that in some way he had an unusual knowledge of social abuses and civic corruption. He had a vital knowledge of the elements of real religion and he had courage to declare the truth as he understood it….He championed the cause of the poor against the oppression of the rich. He loved his country but was especially devoted to his own poor and oppressed people. He preached righteousness and justice with flaming words. He words were effective because the reasons for his passionate proclamation were so evident: `Pinched peasant faces peer between all his words.’”
Since James and Peter do not quote from Nahum, we take our quote from the Gospel Table and from the Apostle Paul.
Sampey writes on Nahum:
“The prophecy of Nahum has for its theme the approaching capture and sack of the cruel capital of the Assyrian empire. The character of Jehovah is the foundation on which Nahum builds: `Jehovah is a jealous God and avengeth; Jehovah avengeth and is full of wrath; Jehovah taketh vengeance on his adversaries, and He reserveth wrath for His enemies’ (Nahum 1:2). The side of retributive righteousness is turned toward the cruel oppressor. `Jehovah is good, a stronghold in the day of trouble; and He knoweth them that take refuge in Him’ (Nahum 1:7). All who turn to Jehovah for help find Him good and kind. The second chapter of Nahum is a vivid picture of the siege and capture of Nineveh. The third chapter indicates constant war and violence as the cause of her downfall. Jehovah is against her, and He will surely bring her to the ground. Nahum perhaps prophesied about 630 B.C. Nineveh was destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians about 606 B.C.”
Hester writes on Nahum:
“This prophet belonged to the same period as Zephaniah and Jeremiah. We may assume that his date was not far from 625 B.C. George Adam Smith thinks 640 B.C. would be better, while a number of other scholars place him much nearer to 612 B.C., when Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, fell to Babylon. This city, so famous in the two preceding centuries, never recovered after 612 B.C. Up to this time it had been impregnable. The city with its walls on hundred feet high and wide enough for three chariots to drive side by side on its top had remained unconquered for more than a century. It is said that outside this massive wall was a moat one hundred and forty feet wide and sixty feet deep, dominated by some twelve hundred defense towers. This proud and cruel city had been involved in the sufferings of multitudes of people. She was to be repaid for all her sins. The judgment of God was to come upon her.
His (Nahum’s) hatred for the cruel Assyrians can be detected in almost every sentence of his book. A holy and just God could not let this city live. Nahum’s righteous indignation flashes like lightning in poetic utterances. God’s wrath and vengeance are not to be thought of as the petty blundering of men. `God is the master of his wrath and uses it.’ When God is angry it is because of principle and not caprice. This city, guilty of cruelty, harlotry, brutality, oppression and rebellion against God, must reap the awful consequences. Nineveh mocked God and died. Such teaching is not inconsistent with the holiness of God.”
(1). Nahum 1:15 and Romans 10:15.
“And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, how beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace and bring glad tidings of good things!” (Romans 10:15)
You are welcome to free download a copy of the Master Tables which outline the whole Bible, the Old Testament according to the New Testament at:
You are also welcome any time to browse the author page of Jerry McMichael (SunGrist) on Amazon at https://www.amazon.com/Jerry-Vaughan-McMichael/e/B07LB2B11Y .
Even as Gospel is not minor to preaching, the Minor Prophets are called minor only because of their size, and as you have noticed are grouped together in the Old Testament. They are in no ways located in the Bible in the historical sequence of writing like the historical books of Joshua, Judges, I and II Chronicles, I and II Kings, and Ester. Isaiah, often called the queen of the Major Prophets and all 16 of the Writing Prophets, written approximately 739 to 681 B.C.; and as Dr. B. H. Carroll does in his “An Interpretation of the English Bible, we can divide all the 19 Prophets into Pre-Isaiah Prophets, Concurrent with Isaiah Prophets, and Post Isaiah Prophets, also as is done in the Master Tables and the end of this Gospel Tract which outline the whole Bible with the Old Testament quotes in the New Testament.
NOTE: For more on this sequencing, please see volume 5 on the 19 Writing Prophets of the Learn Christ Bible Commentaries. The free download is at www.biblecombibleman.com/LCC_5.pdf, and in paperback and Kindle are on Amazon at https://www.amazon.com/Jerry-Vaughan-McMichael/e/B07LB2B11Y .
You can recognize this volume 5 of LCBC by the unusual cover to the left of part of the Table of Contents and points out how there are 19 writing Prophets of the OT which includes Moses, David, and Solomon.