NOTE: From chapter 4 of the soon to be coming forth from Amazon book, the first in the series of 3 on the sermon on the Mount.
There is no way, in outlining we are going to improve on the original way Jesus, the perfect God-man said except to get across the barriers of language, for no doubt Jesus spoke in the common language of Aramaic, for He was striving to communicate to most of the multitude these matters of the kingdom, present and eternal life and death, and how it is achieved and lived through righteousness. There were at the time as in any society misunderstandings about the meaning of righteousness, and Jesus was up against the misrepresentations of the scribes, the Sadducees, and the Pharisees. He would try as much as possible to use the Hebrew wording of the Old Testament, since every Hebrew man, women, and child was trained in the Scriptures.
Jesus spoke Aramaic, at a time when the language was widespread; Hebrew was used mainly as ‘family’ language in the home. This was because Aramaic was the lingua franca of the semitic world. In the Roman world, koine Greek was commonplace throughout the empire, and was also the language of the New Testament.
Today, we are fortunate to have so many versions of the Bible to compare and make the decision both what we think Jesus came closest to saying and for the jar factor, wording to get our attention. I personally enjoy the Moffatt translation because as a student one of the most helpful courses I had was on the book of Acts using the Moffatt translation, also I think the expanded Wuest translation for the helps us see the effects of the language that continue with time. We will use a Hodge podge of translations in our outline on the SERMON.
OUTLINE OF SERMON ON THE MOUNT—
Major Subject: Righteousness for Kingdom Members.
1. Beatitudes and Woes, Privileges of followers of the Messiah. Matthew 5:3-12 and Luke 6:20-28.
a. Matthew 5:3-12:
and he opened his lips and began to teach them. He said:
3“Blessed are those who feel poor in spirit! the Realm of heaven is theirs.
4Blessed are the mourners! they will be consoled.
5Blessed are the humble! they will inherit the earth.
6Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for goodness! they will be satisfied.
7Blessed are the merciful! they will find mercy.
8Blessed are the pure in heart! they will see God.
9Blessed are the peacemakers! they will be ranked sons of God.
10Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of goodness! the Realm of heaven is theirs.
11Blessed are you when men denounce you and persecute you and utter all manner of evil against you for my sake;
12rejoice and exult in it, for your reward is rich in heaven; that is how they persecuted the prophets before you.
b. Luke 6:20-28
(1). The Beatitudes
20 Then He lifted up His eyes toward His disciples, and said:
“Blessed are you poor,
For yours is the kingdom of God.
21 Blessed are you who hunger now,
For you shall be filled.[a]
Blessed are you who weep now,
For you shall laugh.
22 Blessed are you when men hate you,
And when they exclude you,
And revile you, and cast out your name as evil,
For the Son of Man’s sake.
23 Rejoice in that day and leap for joy!
For indeed your reward is great in heaven,
For in like manner their fathers did to the prophets.
(2). Jesus Pronounces Woes
24 “But woe to you who are rich,
For you have received your consolation.
25 Woe to you who are full,
For you shall hunger.
Woe to you who laugh now,
For you shall mourn and weep.
26 Woe [b]to you when [c]all men speak well of you,
For so did their fathers to the false prophets.
(3). Love Your Enemies
27 “But I say to you who hear: Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, 28 bless those who curse you, and pray for those who spitefully use you.
NOTE: How much do you think this is really practiced today, Christians that will take the time and thought to pray for their enemies. Or do good to them.
2. Theme of the Sermon, Christ’s standard of righteousness contrasted to that of the Sadducees and Pharisees. Matthew 5:13-20.
NOTE: And suddenly thanks to those two marvelous men of God from Seminary, we have a major theme for the Sermon.
a. Matthew 5:13-20, ESV.
(1). Salt and Light
13 “You are the salt of the earth, but if salt has lost its taste, how shall its saltiness be restored? It is no longer good for anything except to be thrown out and trampled under people’s feet.
14 “You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden. 15 Nor do people light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on a stand, and it gives light to all in the house. 16 In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that[a] they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.
(2). Christ Came to Fulfill the Law
17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. 18 For truly, I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the Law until all is accomplished. 19 Therefore whoever relaxes one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever does them and teaches them will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
(3) This lays it, the theme, on the line, without mincing any words, and no doubt was on His mind as Jesus was reject at Nazareth as they tried to kill him, and knew He would have to go for the leaders 20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven,
NOTE: Dr. Lee would often tell a congregation, “I can hit a moving target”, I wonder what movement was among the scribes and Pharisees during these words. Some perhaps walked out.
3. Christ’s ethical teachings superior to the of the Scribes (both the OT and the oral law) in 6 ways: murder, adultery, divorce, oaths, retaliation, and love of enemies. Matthew 5:21-48 and Luke 6:27-30,32-36.
(1). Matthew 5:21-48.
a. Sermon at FBC Bartow.
“We are continuing our study of Jesus’ sermon on the mountainside: one of the most famous sermons in history.
Jesus has just finished telling us in verses 17-20 that we must live an ultra-righteous life in order to get into the kingdom of heaven, which points us to our great need for Him and for His righteousness.
Now, Jesus begins a series of statements that follow this format: “You have heard it said . . . but I say.”
In these statements, Jesus is acknowledging the teaching of the Jewish law on a matter, and then He is adding to that commandment, or clarifying it, or explaining what was really at the heart of it.
So, again, Jesus is not doing away with the law. He is fulfilling it Himself and explaining it for His followers! He’s saying that it needs to be obeyed in a fuller way.
So, in this passage, Jesus speaks to us about anger.
b. His quotes of Scripture.
21 “You have heard that it was said to our ancestors, Do not murder, and whoever murders will be subject to judgment. 22 But I tell you, everyone who is angry with his brother or sister will be subject to judgment. Whoever insults his brother or sister, will be subject to the court. Whoever says, ‘You fool!’ will be subject to hellfire. 23 So if you are offering your gift on the altar, and there you remember that your brother or sister has something against you, 24 leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled with your brother or sister, and then come and offer your gift. 25 Reach a settlement quickly with your adversary while you’re on the way with him to the court, or your adversary will hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the officer, and you will be thrown into prison. 26 Truly I tell you, you will never get out of there until you have paid the last penny.
c. Matthew 5:27-48, NJKV
(1). Adultery in the Heart
27 “You have heard that it was said [a]to those of old, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ 28 But I say to you that whoever looks at a woman to lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29 If your right eye causes you to [b]sin, pluck it out and cast it from you; for it is more profitable for you that one of your members perish, than for your whole body to be cast into hell. 30 And if your right hand causes you to [c]sin, cut it off and cast it from you; for it is more profitable for you that one of your members perish, than for your whole body to be cast into hell.
(2). Marriage Is Sacred and Binding
31 “Furthermore it has been said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.’ 32 But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife for any reason except [d]sexual immorality causes her to commit adultery; and whoever marries a woman who is divorced commits adultery.
(3). Jesus Forbids Oaths
33 “Again you have heard that it was said to those of [e]old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform your oaths to the Lord.’ 34 But I say to you, do not swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is God’s throne; 35 nor by the earth, for it is His footstool; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 36 Nor shall you swear by your head, because you cannot make one hair white or black. 37 But let [f]your ‘Yes’ be ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No,’ ‘No.’ For whatever is more than these is from the evil one.
(4).Go the Second Mile
38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ 39 But I tell you not to resist an evil person. But whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also. 40 If anyone wants to sue you and take away your tunic, let him have your cloak also. 41 And whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 42 Give to him who asks you, and from him who wants to borrow from you do not turn away.
(5). Love Your Enemies
43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ 44 [g]But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you, 45 that you may be sons of your Father in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust. 46 For if you love those who love you, what reward have you? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? 47 And if you greet your [h]brethren only, what do you do more than others? Do not even the [i]tax collectors do so? 48 Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.
(2). Luke 6:27-30,32-36.
a. Luke 6:27-30.
(1). Love for Enemies
27 “But I say to you that hear, Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, 28 bless those who curse you, pray for those who abuse you. 29 To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also; and from him who takes away your coat do not withhold even your shirt. 30 Give to every one who begs from you; and of him who takes away your goods do not ask them again. 31 And as you wish that men would do to you, do so to them.
32 “If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 33 And if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 34 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive as much again. 35 But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return;[a] and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind to the ungrateful and the selfish. 36 Be merciful, even as your Father is merciful.
(2). Judging Others
37 “Judge not, and you will not be judged; condemn not, and you will not be condemned; forgive, and you will be forgiven; 38 give, and it will be given to you; good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, will be put into your lap. For the measure you give will be the measure you get back.”
NOTE: The emissary from heaven, Jesus, sent by God to speak those words had so much to say that it took a long three-chapter sermon.
4. The practice of real righteousness unlike the Hypocrisy of the Pharisees on Almsgiving, fasting, and prayer. Matthew 6:1-18.
a. Matthew 6:1-18, Amplified.
(1). Giving to the Poor and Prayer
6 “Be [very] careful not to do your [a]good deeds publicly, to be seen by men; otherwise you will have no reward [prepared and awaiting you] with your Father who is in heaven.
2 “So whenever you give to the poor and do acts of kindness, do not blow a trumpet before you [to advertise it], as the hypocrites do [like actors acting out a role] in the synagogues and in the streets, so that they may be honored and recognized and praised by men. I assure you and most solemnly say to you, they [already] have their reward in full. 3 But when you give to the poor and do acts of kindness, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing [give in complete secrecy], 4 so that your charitable acts will be done in secret; and your Father who sees [what is done] in secret will reward you.
5 “Also, when you pray, do not be like the hypocrites; for they love to pray [publicly] standing in the synagogues and on the corners of the streets so that they may be seen by men. I assure you and most solemnly say to you, they [already] have their reward in full. 6 But when you pray, go into your most private room, close the door and pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees [what is done] in secret will reward you.
NOTE: I don’t know how the Pharisees in the multitude could take this, and they discussed their disagreements among them.
7 “And when you pray, do not use meaningless repetition as the Gentiles do, for they think they will be heard because of their many words. 8 So do not be like them [praying as they do]; for your Father knows what you need before you ask Him.
9 “Pray, then, [b]in this way:
‘Our Father, who is in heaven,
[c]Hallowed be Your name.
‘[d]Your kingdom come,
Your [e]will be done
On earth as it is in heaven.
‘Give us this day our [f]daily bread.
‘And forgive us our [g]debts, as we have forgiven our debtors [letting go of both the wrong and the resentment].
‘And do not [h]lead us into temptation, but deliver us from [i]evil. [j][For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever. Amen.]’
14 For if you forgive [k]others their trespasses [their reckless and willful sins], your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 15 But if you do not forgive others [nurturing your hurt and anger with the result that it interferes with your relationship with God], then your Father will not forgive your trespasses.
(2). Fasting, The True Treasure, Wealth (Mammon)
16 “And whenever you are fasting, do not look gloomy like the hypocrites, for they put on a sad and dismal face [like actors, discoloring their faces with ashes or dirt] so that their fasting may be seen by men. I assure you and most solemnly say to you, they [already] have their reward in full. 17 But when you fast, put oil on your head [as you normally would to groom your hair] and wash your face 18 so that your fasting will not be noticed by people, but by your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees [what is done] in secret will reward you.
NOTE: No doubt, the scribes and Pharisees in the crowd were the hypocrites, but in order to save face before the crowd in which they were respected looked innocent.
5. Single hearted devotion to God as opposed to worldly aims and anxieties. Matthew 6:19-34
a. Matthew 6:19-34 Spurgeon.
C H Spurgeon’s comments…
MATTHEW 6:19-34 THE KING GIVES COMMANDS AS TO THE CARES OF THIS LIFE He would not have his servants seeking two objects, and serving two masters. He calls them away from anxieties about this life to a restful faith in God 19. Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal.
Lay not out your life for gathering wealth: this would be degrading to you as servants of the heavenly kingdom. It you accumulate either money or raiment, your treasures will be liable to “moth and rust ”; and of both you may be deprived by dishonest men. That earthly things decay, or are taken from us, is an excellent reason for not making them the great objects of our pursuit. Hoard not for thieves, gather not for corruption: accumulate for eternity, and send your treasures into the land whither you are going. To live for the sake of growing rich is a gilded death in life. (Commentary)
6. Captious criticism, or judging others. Matthew 7:1-6 and Luke 6:37-42.
NOTE: Where Paul has Luke add some of the teachings. Of course, in the manuscripts of Paul were recorded the stories of other Apostles related to him, as well as OT quotations, and an outline of events in a thorough lawyer like fashion. You see why I like to call Paul the chief editor of the NT, which is what God really called him to do.
a. Matthew 7:1-6, a sermon, “Judging”: Do I Have This Problem?
When most people read this passage or quote part of it, they have one thing in mind: You cannot judge! This assertion is often made before the context is studied, and without regard to everything else the Bible says that bears upon the matter of judging. There can be little doubt, the desire that produces this assertion is the yearning for complete tolerance – a religious and social climate where nobody says that anybody is doing anything wrong. Is this what Jesus intended? Are we to believe that nobody is allowed to say anybody is wrong about anything?
First, if this is what the passage means – those who argue for this complete tolerance violate the passage when they judge us in this matter, as the least showing their inconsistency. If you argue that all arguing is wrong – either you disobey your own principle in so doing and demonstrate inconsistency. Or you imply that arguing and judging is wrong for everybody, except those who argue against arguing and judging! It should be clear, Jesus is not advocating this kind of confusion.
Second, when you study the context of Matthew seven, great light is shed on what the Lord meant. The kind of judging He is forbidding is described in verse 3. When you search out the speck in your brother’s eye, but you “do not consider” the plank in your own eye; then when you proceed to do “eye surgery” on your brother to remove his speck, Jesus says you are a hypocrite, thus guilty of what He condemns!
Some of the typical Pharisees in the time of Christ displayed an obvious capacity and obsession for judging and condemning other people for their weaknesses, while they were guilty of deliberate rebellion against the law of God. These men would condemn their countrymen for neglecting to pay the exact tithe according to their interpretation – yet these harsh accusers would be guilty of neglecting the weightier matters of the law – justice, mercy and faith. These religious policemen would enforce every minute detail of their religious tradition, but they would devour the homes of widows! Jesus said, in Matthew 23, they would “strain out a gnat and swallow a camel!”
This is the kind of hypocritical judging Jesus forbids. Not all judging, but the kind of judging He describes.
If we are anxious to dispense judgment, but not anxious to be examined ourselves, we are guilty of the hypocrisy Jesus is exposing here! If I have the ambition to watch others carefully, call them into account and offer condemnation, but I do not have equal diligence about examining myself and correcting my own behavior, I’m guilty of what Jesus is talking about. If I want to judge, but I refuse to be judged; if I want to dish out medicine, but I’m not even willing to examine my own health; if I refuse to be judged “with the same measure” I judge – I have a problem, and it is the problem Jesus is addressing here!
By Warren E. Berkley
b. Luke 6:37-42, KJV.
37 Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven:
38 Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again.
39 And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?
40 The disciple is not above his master: but every one that is perfect shall be as his master.
41 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but perceives not the beam that is in thine own eye?
42 Either how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me pull out the mote that is in thine eye, when thou thyself beholdest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of thine own eye, and then shalt thou see clearly to pull out the mote that is in thy brother’s eye.
a. Matthew 7:7-12, New International Version.
Ask, Seek, Knock
7 “Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you. 8 For everyone who asks receives; the one who seeks finds; and to the one who knocks, the door will be opened.
9 “Which of you, if your son asks for bread, will give him a stone? 10 Or if he asks for a fish, will give him a snake? 11 If you, then, though you are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in heaven give good gifts to those who ask him! 12 So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets.
b. Luke 6:31, NJKV
31 And just as you want men to do to you, you also do to them likewise.”
a. Matthew 7:13-28.
(1). The Narrow Way
13 “Enter by the narrow gate; for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leads to destruction, and there are many who go in by it. 14 [a]Because narrow is the gate and [b]difficult is the way which leads to life, and there are few who find it.
(2). You Will Know Them by Their Fruits
15 “Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves. 16 You will know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes from thornbushes or figs from thistles? 17 Even so, every good tree bears good fruit, but a bad tree bears bad fruit. 18 A good tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a bad tree bear good fruit. 19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 20 Therefore by their fruits you will know them.
(3). I Never Knew You
21 “Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father in heaven. 22 Many will say to Me in that day, ‘Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in Your name, cast out demons in Your name, and done many wonders in Your name?’ 23 And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness!’
(4). Build on the Rock
24 “Therefore whoever hears these sayings of Mine, and does them, I will liken him to a wise man who built his house on the rock: 25 and the rain descended, the floods came, and the winds blew and beat on that house; and it did not fall, for it was founded on the rock.
26 “But everyone who hears these sayings of Mine, and does not do them, will be like a foolish man who built his house on the sand: 27 and the rain descended, the floods came, and the winds blew and beat on that house; and it fell. And great was its fall.”
28 And so it was, when Jesus had ended these sayings, that the people were astonished at His teaching,
b. Luke 6:43-49.
(1). A Tree Is Known by Its Fruit
43 “For a good tree does not bear bad fruit, nor does a bad tree bear good fruit. 44 For every tree is known by its own fruit. For men do not gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 45 A good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth good; and an evil man out of the evil [a]treasure of his heart brings forth evil. For out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaks.
(2). Build on the Rock
46 “But why do you call Me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and not do the things which I say? 47 Whoever comes to Me, and hears My sayings and does them, I will show you whom he is like: 48 He is like a man building a house, who dug deep and laid the foundation on the rock. And when the flood arose, the stream beat vehemently against that house, and could not shake it, for it was [b]founded on the rock. 49 But he who heard and did nothing is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream beat vehemently; and immediately it [c]fell. And the ruin of that house was great.”
9. It is no exaggeration of the Gospels that in Matthew 8:1, multitudes followed Jesus, “great multitudes”.